The LG V30 uses glass lens for its rear cameras instead of plastic ones that are found in almost all phone cameras. This is the same material used in interchangeable lenses for DSLR cameras. LG calls it "Crystal Clear Lens" and it's just a marketing way to promote its glass-made camera lens. The glass increase the light penetration rate and therefore allows the sensor lies below the lens to receive more light. The result is an image with a higher dynamic range, so dark and highlight areas in the image will have more details in them.
Having said all that, I'm quite surprised that LG went with a small sensor. I guess there was no other way to implement at fast f/1.6 lens (for the standard-angle camera) with such a large aperture. It's like the fast aperture and the high light penetration capability of the lens will just cover the inefficiency of the sensor's pixels in accumulating more light. I am interested to see how all this works out, but having a DSLR and many interchangeable lenses myself, it's great to see LG choosing to go with glass lenses. It just fills more like shooting with a traditional cameras. I think it also allows it to reduce distortions as well, but all that yet to be seen.
We need to see how all that translates to a better image quality and low-light performance in general, but it's certainly an advantage as far as the camera lens is concern. I would be interested to see how the V30 camera compares in terms of dynamic range to a phone that uses the same sensor, obviously with a slower aperture. I want to see how it really affects the dynamic range. I'm sure one of the leading photography websites will do a deep analysis of the image quality, maybe DxOMark, but let's just wait and see.
You probably ask yourself why sensor manufacturers use plastic anyways? Well, I just guess that because it's cheaper to make and they have good optical properties. I mean, have you ever stopped and ask yourself if the Galaxy S7 or iPhone 7 has a plastic or glass lens? I guess you haven't, but there is a reason why DSLR interchangeable lenses use glass and not plastic, because of the better light transitivity and generally better optical properties. I am far from being an expert in the field of optics, but no doubt that LG is very proud of this feature. Whether it translates into a significant advantage in terms of dynamic range, I guess we'll need to wait and see.
Image credit: LG